Friday, January 31, 2014

DOORS, WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS

A door may be defined as an openable barrier secured in an opening left in a wall for the purpose of providing access to the users of the structure.It basically consists of two parts, namely, frame and shutter.The door shutter is held in position by the door frame which in turn is fixed in the opening of the wall by some suitable means
A window may be defined as an opening mad in a wall for the purpose of providing day light, vision and ventilation.It also like door consist of two parts i.e.frame and shutter.The window frame is suitably fixed in the opening of the wall and the window shutter is held in position by the window frame.

                      IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS OF DOOR AND WINDOW 

Purpose: The main function of doors in a building is to serve as a connecting link between the various internal parts.The number of doors in a room should be kept minimum due to the fact that more number of doors will cause obstruction and reduce the effective usable carpet area of the room.The windows are generally provided to give light and ventilation both to the interior parts of a building.When windows are provided for the purpose light only, as in case of storage rooms,show rooms, etc., they may be fixed so that they cannot be opened.But when the windows are provided for light and ventilation,some or all the portion of windows must open.This can be achieved by providing suitable hinges at top,bottom or sides.

Size:In general, a door should have such dimension as will allow the movement of the largest object likely to use the door.The minimum widths for interior doors, external doors and doors in public buildings such as hospitals, library, etc.,are 800 mm, 1 m and 1.20 m respectively.Regarding height and width of a door, the general rule followed in India, is as follows:                                         
Height = width + 1 m to 1.20 m approximately                                                                                     
Width  = 0.4 to 0.6 of height.  
 The size of window depends on the dimensions of the room, direction and speed of the wind, obstruction to light by neighbouring building and trees, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, climatic conditions of the region, etc. Following general rules may me observed while deciding the size of window:
Breadth of window = 1/8 (width of room + Height of room)
for 30 m3   inside contents of the room, there should be at least one m2 of window opening.
The total area of the window opening should be at least 15 per cent of the floor area of the room.
The total area of glass panels in the window opening should be at least 10 per cent of the floor area of the room.
For public buildings, the provision of window opening should be more than above requirements.
 The BIS recommends that the size of door frame and window frame should be derived after allowing a margin of 5 mm all around an opening for convenience of fixing.The width and height of an opening is indicated by number of modules where each module is of 100 mm


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The height of opening for door is considered from below the floor finish to the bottom of lintel.In the designation for door, the letter D, S and T represent respectively door, single shutter and double shutters.For instance, the designation 9 DS 20 denotes a door opening having width equal to 9 modules i.e. 900 mm and height equal to 20 modules i.e.2000 mm.The door is with single shutter.In a similar way, the designation 12 DT 20 denotes a door opening having width equal to 20 modules i.e. 1200 mm and height equal to 20 modules i.e. 200 mm. The door is of two shutters.
For the designation of windows, the letters W, S and T represent respectively window, single shutter and double shutters.For instance, the designation 6 WS 13 denote a window opening with single shutters having width equal to 6 modules i.e. 600 mm and height equal to 13 modules i.e. 1300 mm.In a similar way, the designation 12 WT 12 denotes a window opening with two shutters having width and height each equal to 12 modules i.e. 1200 mm. 
 Location:The doors and windows are generally located by the architect of the building following general rules may be observed while deciding the location of doors and windows:
The doors should be preferably be located near the corner of a room, at a distance of about  200 mm from the corner.
The sill of a window opening should preferably be located at a height of  700 mm to 800 mm from inside of the floor level.
The factors such as distribution of light, control of ventilation, prevalent direction of wind, privacy, etc., should be considered in the location of windows.
The doors and windows should be located by keeping in view the interior decoration and the functional requirements of the room.

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